I wanted to get a teacher's view on this….

I wanted to get a teacher's view on this. A while back in AP history we were having a debate. I LOVE debates. I love talking, and arguing and defending my points. However, at that debate I just sort of… broke down. (I suspect I have anxiety but I don't know) and I asked to leave class, I was allowed and I ran out of there crying. Do you think he will tell my parents? My parents would think something is wrong with me, and send me off to a "special school", but I love my school. Should I worry?

Talk to your teacher.  We all have bad days.  You could also try talking to your parents and your doctor if you have some concerns with your mental health.